We, the Heads of State/Government of the Member States of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the People’s Republic of China, gathered on 3 November 2019 in Bangkok on the occasion of the 22nd ASEAN-China Summit;

Recognizing the importance of addressing the challenges arising from rapid urbanization and developing a regional smart cities ecosystem to harvest the opportunities associated with the ongoing digital and 4 th industrial revolution;

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