WE, the Heads of State and Government of the Member States of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the People’s Republic of China, Japan, and the Republic of Korea, gathering at the 22nd ASEAN Plus Three Summit on 4 November 2019 in Bangkok, Thailand;

RECOGNISING the geographical proximity, the increasing interdependence and growing connectivity between the ASEAN Plus Three countries and within the region as well as the challenges and opportunities stemming from the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR);

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