WE, the Heads of State and Government of the Member States of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), Australia, the People’s Republic of China, the Republic of India, Japan, the Republic of Korea, New Zealand, the Russian Federation, and the United States of America, on the occasion of the 14th East Asia Summit (EAS) in Bangkok, Thailand, on 4 November 2019;

RECOGNISING that the alarming growth of the illicit global drug trade as well as the persistent, new, and evolving challenges of the world drug problem, including the expanding and diversified range of drugs and drug markets continue to adversely affect the health and welfare of nations and their peoples;

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